Svatovo - the basic facts.
Svatovo is the regional town located in the northwest of Lugansk area, near small river "Krasnaja", inflow of Severski Donets. It is situated on the distance 170 km from Lugansk. There is not any minerals resources in this district. The area is riched in underground and surface waters, chalk, limestone, loam and sand. All these materials are used for building.
The climate is temperate continental. Summer is dry and hot, winter is cold, it snows not very hard, with frequent thawing weather and ice. Monthly average temperature is-7?оС (minimal up to-40) in winter, +21 оС (maximal up to +40) in summer . Average level of presipitation is up to 415 mm.
There are three small rivers in Svatovo district : Zherebez (58 km.), Krasnaja (124 km.), Borovaja (86 km.). Krasnaja river has 4 affluents: Duvanka (24 km.), Gnilaja (20 km.), Кobylka (16 km.), Kharino (24 km.). Almost in each village there are ponds and water-storage basins. The greatest one is man- made lake. The area is 419 hectares.
Ground consist of chernozems . On the bottom of rivers and on lowlands - meadow and meadow-marsh grounds. Cretaceous grounds are on hills.
The vegetation is prairie - deciduous woods, saline meadows and vegetation of cretaceous blanket.
Svatovo is at the same time a railway station "Svatovo" ( Donetsk railway system). Geographical coordinates of Svatovo are :the latitude of 49°25 ' N., the longtitude of 55°44 ' E.
The height is 91м. above sea level .
The area of town - 2091 hectares.
There are156 streets, lanes and quarters, 6992 houses in the town.
Extentiion is 9,2 km from the north to the south and 4,7 km. from the east to the West .
The population is 21320 people (March, 1-th 2007)
People celebrated 345 years of foundation anniversary in 2005.
The main river of Svatjvo is" Krasnaja" that flows through the town. Svatovo extends from the north to the south. Economic-geographical position of the town is favourable as Svatovo is located in the center of transport ways. The territory is compact, equil distanse from the center of the region.
The city was founded in 1660 near "Krasnaja " river and was named as a "Svatovo Luchka". In 1923 Svatovo Luchka became a regional center and renamed as" Svatovo".
Development of the town and area was promoted by construction of railway station in 1894-1895 . The modern highways connect Svatovo with Lugansk, Kharkov, Starobelsk, Belokurakino, Troitsk .
The brief historical facts.
It is well known from Peter's I letter ( 1704) , that the territory which our town is located on was occupied in 60th years of XVІ of century by peasants and cossacks of Left- and Right-bank of Ukraine and also by russian people. Svatovo Loochka was founded at that time. The name descended from not existing now small river "Svacha". Russian government used Ukrainian cossacks as defence against Crimean and Nogai Tatars, gave them lands, weapons and food on good terms,
In the beginning of XVІІІ -th century Svatovo Luchka belonged to Izjum regiment. It was a small town that was well defenced from enemy`s attacks. The population was cossaks that hadn`t got their houses and lived in rich Cossack` families as workers. There was 133regiment cossaks and 514 workers in Svatovo Luchka.They took part in Peter's I Azov campaigns, in the battle near Poltava agaist Swedes in June 1709.
Svatovo Luchka became the center of one of komissar administrations which had been arranged in 1765. The residents of this village were derpived of cossaks rights and privileges and were taxed as a subjects (35 to 95 kopeek per person ). It was the reason of struggle for returning of privileges. So called "gaidamack groops" struggled against masters and bureaucrats and also attacked their houses near Svatovo Luchka .
There is an information about social differentiation in Svatovo Luchka: in 1773 total: residents- 2928 , military residents- 2664, peasants - 96, merchants - 3. Agriculture and cattle-breeding were fundamental occupation of residents. . Besides people were engaged in distilling and tar business, produced carts, wheels, ploughs. Women weaved their canvas and cloth for needs on sale. Fairs arranged there four time per year. Merchants came from different cities of Ukraine and also from Russia. There was plenty of silks, printed cottons , harel furs, utensils. Local residents sold bread, salted fish, pots, tar, soap, and also horses. In 1785 there were 2 mills, 15 shops, 12 taverns and a church in Svatovo Luchka.
In the first quarter of XІ-th century Svatovo Luchka became one of Arakcheev`s military settlements. In 1825 a large village was settled by soldiers of Ekaterinoslav regiment ( the second Kirasir division). Svatovo Luchka was renamed as Novoekaterinoslav.
Imperial government was compelled to destinate residents as a state peasants after numerous revolts. According to decrees from January, 18th, 1866 their allotments were saved, however state peasants should pay some money for 20 years.
During the 19-th century Svatovo Luchka became rather developed town . In 1862 here lived more than 7 thousand person. Svatovo took one of the first places among large villages of Kupjansk region ( Kharkov province). In the second half of XІ century there were 6 fairs every year . Merchants who came there bought up grain, cattle, craft products. In 1879, for example, 154 poods of wheats were bought up on Svatovo Luchka market . The large village was famous for mechanics, potters, smiths and other workers. There were more handycrafts than in Kupjansk. 142 handycrafts lived in Svatovo Luchka in 1904.
The construction of railroad line "Кupjansk-Lisichansk " that passed through Svatovo Luchka was the reason of economic development in 1895. A railway station Svatovo was constructed there too. A railway station "Svatovo" located in the center of the large agricultural area, on the crossroads of trading ways. For transportation of cargoes, in particular breads and live-stock, was included in number of the greatest stations of Ekaterinenskoj railway. So, it was sent 1,9 million poods of various cargoes, including 1,7 million poods of bread, and also 1,2 thousands of . live-stocks in 1898. Locomotive depot and repair shops were built simultaneously with railway station where worked up to 200 workers . Besides there were 10 small enterprises : 2 mills, a creamery, a small brick plants. 43 workers worked there in 1904, the production amounts was up to 30,0 thousand roubles. Workers worked in dark and damp rooms for 10-12 hours, getting pure salary .for their unbearable and hard work.
14877 residents lived in a large village in 1911. There were 2135 houses. In 1923 Svatovo Luchka becomes the regional center of the Kharkov province and it was renamed as "Svatovo". In 1938 the population of Svatovo was 20,7 thousand people, the Svatovo settlement became a town of regional submission.
Foundation and development of Svatovo district.
Svatovo district is one of the largest ones in Lugansk region.
The area of Svatovo district is 1765 sq.кm ( 6,6 % of regions territory) . The area extention is 43 km on the straight line from the north to the south and 50 km from the west to the east .
Svatovo district borders on Troizk district; on Belokurakino and Starobelsk ones in the north ; - on Kremennoje in the south and Kupjansk and Borovoje( Kharkov region) districts in the west. The district serves as a gate to Donbass region because many important transport ways leads to Donbass and Luganshina regions.
The territory consists of hilly-hollow plain devided by river valleys and beams.The height of northern part is up to 200m.
Svatovo area includes the territory of former Nizhnjaja Duvanka and Mostki districts. The history of its creation and development takes the beginning in 1923. According to decree of "ВУЦИК" №313 from March, 7th, 1923 volost Svatovskaja volost was established.
Administrative-territorial reform 1922-1925
During this period there was not any changes on territory of Svatovo, Mostki and Nizhnaja Duvanka ,only the name "volost"was changed on " rural area" . In June, 21st, 1923 large village Svatovo Luchka was renamed as Svatovo village.
According to information ( 12,06,1923) district there were 5769 court yards, the square was 2658 decimetre, 1721 decimetre of woods in Svatovo . 31767 person lived in Svatovo district, 15554(men), 16213 (women).There were 1 hospital, an agricultural station, veterinary hospital, 14 schools . The area of winter wheat was 29380 decimetre, 11070 spring rye and 1800 wheat. Early summer:a barley - 5134,a wheat - 3112, an oats - 622 (only 8868 decimetre ). Late summer:a sunflower - 4384,a corn - 548, a millet - 602,a buckwheat- 177,a flax - 110, a hemp - 33, a potatoes - 800, a sugar beet - 108, a fodder beet - 8, watermelon plantation - 522 (only 7642 decimeter ).
The industry was well developed that time. The great nationalized industrial plants worked there: the Creamery №22 , other ones, a thermal mill (form." Ponomarjova"), other thermal ones (form. "Ungera").
Administrative-territorial reform 1932-1965 г.г.
Regions were established instead of provinces in Ukraine in 1932. In July, 2nd, 1932 Donetsk region included Starobelsk district with Svatovo, Nizhniaja Duvanka and Mostki rural area. These areas were a part of Starobelsk district till 1938.
In June, the 3rd of 1938 Donetsk region was liquidated by USSR` Presidium of Supreme administration decree and Stalin and Voroshilovgrad regions were created instead of them. That year Svatovo, Nizhniaja Duvanka and Mostki areas were included as a part of Voroshilovgrad region ; Svatovo village received the status of regional town.
In 1957 Stelmahovka village was given from Senkov village (Kupjansk district) to Kolomyjchicha ones.
In September, 1959, Mostki district was liquidated in connection with integration of rural areas. The most part of settlements and Mostki village were given to Starobelsk and Kremennoje districts . Later Rudovka and Kruglovka rural villiges were given to Svatovo district .
In 1961 Melovatka village was given from Kremennoje district to Svatovo ones.
Nizhniaja Duvanka and Mostki areas were abolished according to decree of Presidium of Supreme administration USSR from December,the 30th of 1962 . All the settlements in this region were joined to Troizk district and settlements of Kremennoje district (except Kremennoje town) were joined to Svatovo district. Meanwhile Mostki rural area was given to Svatovo district.
In December, 15th, 1964 Kremennoje district was created again with all belonged settlements.
In January, 4th, 1965, according to the Decree of Presidium of Supreme administration Svatovo district again changes the borders. Its territory includes Svatovo , Melovatka, Kovaljovka, Rajgorodka, Kolomyjchicha, Kuzjomovka, Goncharovka, Pervomajka, Petrovka, Мostki and Rudovka rural ares and also Hizhnjaja-Duvanka, Verchnjaja Duvanka, Оborotnovka, Preobrazhennoje, Svistunovka and Мankovka rural ones.
The territory of Svatovo district is 1765 sq. km. The population is 63219 person (on 01,01,1965); the town - 27200 (43 %), rural territory - 36019 (57 %). Nationalities: Ukrainians - 93,4 %, Russians - 6,2 %, other - 0,4 %.
The area includes 73 settlements incorporated in 15 rural Councils, 1 City Council ; 19 collective farms, 4 state farms, the state nursery forest. The general ground fund - 143,3 th. hectars : arable lands - 113,2 th. h. (79 %), gardens - 2,5 th. h. (1,7 %), haymakings 4,6 th.h. (3,3 %), pastures - 23 th.h. (16 %), woods - 5442 hectares.
The basic sowing cultures -a wheat,a corn, a sunflower, a peas, a beet. Workers of Svatovo district planted the biggist harvest of winter crops - 25,7 centners/hectares. The district hit the target up to 214 % (bread sales ) including a winter wheat (up to 325 %). In the state farms and collective farms there were a great number of pigs, sheep, birds, cattles. According to statistic information ( 01,01,1966) there were 54958 head of cattle, pigs - 76298, sheeps - 15457, birds - 59501 . It was produced a great number of production (meat - 72008 h., milk - 288048 h., eggs - 3346 , wool - 28523 h..)
14335 residents worked at the factories in Svatovo district.
. 3848 houses was built in 1965. 373 houses were built due to the state capital investment.
There were 30 clubs, 3 houses for culture, musical school, 25 rural libraries, 2 regional libraries. 60 comprehensive schools existed. Among them: 7 - secondary schools, 21 - primery , 1 - extra mural, 1 - correspondence ones. 10277 pupils studied there, 534 teachers worked. Medical service consisted of 9 ambulance stations, , 6 drugstores, 31 obstetric hospitals.
An industry was well developed too. There were many plants such as : building materials plant , oil mill, milk plant, meat-packing plant, flavoring plant, bread-baking plant, car repair plant, transport equipment plant, depot and many other ones. The industrial plants let out production on a total sum of 53698,63 thousand roubles.
Svatovo district now.
Unfortunately last years were not happy for Svatovo. The population was considerably reduced. There are 40044 persons according to information on March, 1st, 2007 ; Svatovo - 21320, rural area - 18724. There are 30 schools. 5000 pupils go there. There are 3 hospitals and 8 out-patient-polyclinics .
According to statistical date there are 570 enterprises and organizations with a various pattern of ownership. Among them: agricultural - 279, industrial - 39, wholesale and retail trade - 215. Such enterprises are not existing : bread-baking plant, depository for goods, Canning factory in Goncharovka and others. In fact all the plants and factories don`t work so it had been earlier. The milk-mill , the mechanical-repair factory, the meat-packing plant, the tank farm, service station and other former powerful enterprises.
Kindergartens, schools, clubs, libraries are closed in villages . Not only rural, but already young people from Svatovo leaves native places, they search for better life conditions out from Svatovo district.
Journalists of newspaper « Svatovo news » ( April, 20th, 2007) found out that if such level and reduction of population proceed in future, Svatovo district will disappear from Ukraine`s territory.